Kansas Employment Law Blog Photo
 
IRS Provides Guidance on Treatment of Same-Sex Spouses In Retirement Plans
04/04/2014
By: Jason Lacey

The IRS released its long-anticipated guidance today on the impact of the Windsor case to qualified retirement plans. The guidance resolves a potentially thorny issue on retroactive recognition of same-sex marriages and clarifies when plans must adopt any amendments required to comply with Windsor. Here are the highlights:

Retroactivity Permitted But Not Required. Plans are not required to recognize same-sex marriages for any period before June 26, 2013 (the date of the Windsor decision). They are permitted to designate an earlier date as of which same-sex marriages will be recognized for plan purposes, although the guidance observes that recognizing same-sex marriages for all purposes as of a date earlier than June 26, 2013 may trigger requirements that are difficult to implement retroactively and may create unintended consequences, so caution must be exercised. 

Amendments May Not Be Necessary. A plan must be amended to reflect the outcome in Windsor only if the plan terms are inconsistent with Windsor. For example, a plan that defines a spouse as only a person of the opposite sex would be inconsistent with the outcome in Windsor. But a plan that merely uses the term "spouse" or "lawful spouse" without limiting it to persons of the opposite sex may be ok.

Amendment Timing. To the extent an amendment is required, it generally must be adopted by December 31, 2014. (Special rules may apply for non-calendar-year plans and governmental plans.)

Health and Welfare Plans Unaffected. This guidance addresses only retirement plans and does not impact health and welfare plans. 

The IRS's notice (Notice      Continue Reading...

 
Post-Windsor Guidance Addresses Employment Tax Refunds
09/25/2013
By: Jason Lacey

In another round of post-Windsor guidance (here), the IRS has provided some alternative processes for obtaining refunds of employment taxes (FICA tax and withheld income tax) paid with respect to same-sex spouses prior to the Supreme Court's decision in Windsor (e.g., for coverage under a cafeteria or health plan).

Overpayments for 2013. With respect to taxes paid in 2013, there are two alternative procedures for claiming a refund: (1) the employer may true-up the entire year's withholding on its fourth quarter 2013 employment tax return (Form 941); or (2) the employer may file a single amended employment tax return (Form 941-X) for the fourth quarter of 2013 to reflect the correct withholding amounts for the entire year. Both of these approaches allow employers to avoid filing amended returns for each quarter of the year to correct the withholding for that quarter.

For the third quarter of 2013 (July-September), employers should report on the employment tax return for that quarter the amount of taxes actually withheld and not refunded by the end of the quarter. For example, if an employer adjusted its withholding system effective August 1, 2013 and also refunded any taxes withheld in July 2013, then it would not report any of those withheld amounts on its Form 941 for the third quarter. But if it did not refund the July taxes by the end of the third quarter, then those taxes should be reported on the third quarter return and a refund claimed by way of one of the methods      Continue Reading...

 
IRS Releases Initial Guidance on Same-Sex Spouses
08/29/2013
By: Jason Lacey

We have been anticipating guidance from the IRS on the treatment of same-sex spouses for tax and benefit purposes in light of the Supreme Court's overturning of DOMA, and here it is.

Married Anywhere. Rev. Rul. 2013-17 (here) says that a same-sex couple validly married anywhere (including in a foreign country) will be recognized as married for federal tax purposes, even if their marriage is not recognized under the law of their home state. In other words, it’s a state-of-celebration rule, not a state-of-residence rule.

All Tax Purposes. The rule applies for all tax purposes, including employee benefits. So in addition to filing joint tax returns, same-sex spouses may obtain tax-free coverage for each other under health or cafeteria plans and are entitled to spousal rights under 401(k) and other qualified retirement plans. Also, medical expenses incurred by one spouse in a same-sex marriage will qualify for reimbursement from a flexible spending account or health savings account maintained by the other spouse. Recognition of the same-sex marriage may present an issue for participants in dependent care assistance plans, because the spouse's income and employment must now be taken into account.

Retroactivity. Individuals in existing same-sex marriages may go back and claim a refund for taxes on any imputed income that resulted from coverage of a same-sex spouse or children of a same-sex spouse under a health or cafeteria plan. Employers may also be able to obtain refunds of employment taxes imposed on imputed income. The refunds are limited to years for which the statute      Continue Reading...

 
Supreme Court Invalidates DOMA
06/26/2013
By: Jason Lacey

In a closely watched and sharply divided opinion today, the Supreme Court invalidated the federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) and its directive that only opposite-sex spouses may be recognized as spouses for purposes of federal law. Although the details and impact of the decision are still being parsed and evaluated, the bottom line is that same-sex couples who are recognized as validly married under state law are entitled to be recognized as spouses for purposes of federal law.

Brief Background. The case involved a same-sex couple, Edith Windsor and Thea Spyer, who had been married in Canada and whose marriage was recognized as valid under New York law, where they lived. Ms. Spyer died and left her estate to Ms. Windsor, who was required to pay federal estate tax because, under DOMA, she could not rely on an estate tax exception that allows for tax-free transfers of property between spouses at death. She sued for a refund of the taxes, claiming DOMA was unconstitutional.

The Court’s Analysis. Five of the nine Supreme Court justices agreed that DOMA was unconstitutional because it violated the equal protection rights of same-sex individuals who were recognized under state law as validly married. The Court essentially said that if a same-sex couple and an opposite-sex couple are treated the same under state law, they are constitutionally entitled to equal treatment under federal law.

Implication for Employee Benefit Plans. The case has many implications for employee benefit plans. For health plans, qualifying same-sex spouses that are covered under      Continue Reading...

 
Federal Appeals Court Rules Against Defense of Marriage Act
06/04/2012
By: Jason Lacey

A federal appeals court in Boston ruled late last week that a portion of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) is unconstitutional because it violates the rights of same-sex couples who are validly married under Massachusetts law. At issue in the case was a provision of DOMA that says only opposite-sex spouses may be recognized as spouses for purposes of federal law.

This has important implications for employee-benefit plans because several provisions of federal law grant spouses special rights. For example, spouses have survivor rights under retirement plans, and spouses can receive tax-free coverage and have special-enrollment and COBRA rights under group health plans. Under DOMA, these rights do not apply to same-sex spouses, but that could change if DOMA is struck down.

The case does not disturb existing state statutes and constitutional provisions that prohibit the recognition of same-sex marriages. But difficult questions may arise if a same-sex couple that is validly married in one state seeks to enforce rights under federal law against an employer or employee-benefit plan in a state that does not recognize same-sex marriage.

Ultimately, this is an issue that will be addressed by the Supreme Court, and now that a federal appeals court has ruled, review by the Supreme Court could come as early as next year.

 


Authors
Don Berner Image
Don Berner, the Labor Law, OSHA, & Immigration Law Guy
Boyd Byers Image
Boyd Byers, the General Employment Law Guy
Jason Lacey Image
Jason Lacey, the Employee Benefits Guy
Additional Sources
Subscribe to Kansas Employment Law Letter Image
Subscribe to Kansas Legislative Insights Image